Genres of Texts: Procedure, narrative, Descriptive, Recount, News Items, Report, Spoof, Analytical Exposition, Hortatory Exposition and Discussion Texts - There are several genres of text taught in secondary levels. Nurbaity (2013) has summarized them as follow:
1. Procedure Text
The social function of Procedure text is to describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
2. Narrative Text
The social function of Narrative text is to amuse, to entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. It deals with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind which in turn finds a resolution. Its generic structures are Orientation, Complication, Resolution and Reorientation. Orientation paragraph sets the scene, times, and introduces the participants. Complication paragraph is when the a crisis arises. Resolution paragraph is when the crisis is resolved, for better or worse. While Re orientation paragraph is an optional, sometimes contains of the character building or moral value of the text.
3. Descriptive Text
The social function of Descriptive text is to describe a particular person, place or thing. Its generic structures are Identification and Description. Identification paragraph identifies phenomenon to be described. While description paragraphs describe or give the general and specific information about the person, place or thing described.
4. Recount Text
The social function of recount text is to retell events for the purposes of informing or entertaining. While its generic structures are orientation, even and reorientation. Orientation paragraph provides the setting and introduces participants, giving information about what, who, where and when. Event paragraphs tell about what happened in what sequence. And reorientation paragraph is optional or as a closure of events.
5. News Items Test
5. News Items Test
The social function of News Items text is to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. Its generic stucture are Newsworthy event(s), Background events and Sources. Newsworthy event paragraph recounts the events in summary form. Background events paragraphs elaborates what happenend to whom, in what circumstance. And sources are comments by participants in, witnesses to and aythorities expert on the events.
6. Report Text
The social function of Report text is to describe the way things are with reference to arrange of natural, man made and social phenomena in our environment. It is the result of systematic observation or analysis, general conclusion and general statement about. its generic structure are Generic classification and Description. Generic classification paragraph tells what phenomena under discussion is, while Description tells the phenomena is like in the terms of parts and their function, qualities and habits or behaviors.
7. Analytical Exposition Text
The Social function of Analytical Exposition is to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case that there is a case to concern, to pay attention to. It has two generic structures, thesis and arguments. Each consists of two kinds of paragraph. In Thesis, there are Position and Preview. Position introduces topic and indicates writers position while Preview outlines the main arguments to be presented. In Arguments, there are points and elaboration. Points paragraph restates main arguments outlined in preview, while Elaboration paragraph develops and supports each point or argument.
8. Hortatory Exposition Text
The social function of Hortatory Exposition is to persuade the reader that something should or should not be the case. It exhorts someone to take or to desist in some action. Its generic structures are Thesis, Arguments and Recommendation. Thesis paragraph announces of issue of concern, Arguments paragraph explains the reasons for concern, leading to recommendation, and Recommendation paragraph consists of statement of what ought not to happen.
9. Spoof Text
The social function of Spoof Text is to retell an event with humorous twist. Its generic structures are Orientation, Events and Twist. Orientation sets the scene, Events tells what happened, and Twist provides the punchline.
The social function of Discussion Text is to present, at least, two points of view about an issue and to look at an issue from a range of perspectives before making judgement or recommendation. Its generic structures are Issue, Argument and Conclusion or Recommendation.